Cognitive statements are those that are either true or false. For example, the statement “there are eight planets in the solar system” is either true or false. While it depends on one’s definition of a planet, once one establishes that definition it is possible to determine the probable truth or falsity of the statement. (It is only probable because, no matter how remote the possibility, it is nonetheless possible that all people who believe that, say, Saturn exists because they have perceived it with their senses, either by aid of a telescope or with the naked eye, as well as all of those who have never seen Saturn but believe it exists because they trust those who claim to have seen it on authority, could be mistaken. No matter how unlikely, it is possible that Saturn is an illusion or an imaginary object,.)

Noncognitive statements are those that are neither true nor false. For example, the statement, “Saturn’s rings are beautiful,” while most people probably agree with it, is not objectively true. The view that Saturn’s rings are ugly, while most people would not agree, nevertheless cannot be said to be false. Coherent noncognitive statements are expressions of opinion, not fact. Incoherent noncognitive statements, such as “Saturn googoogajoob one-four niner,” while neither true nor false, are impossible to make sense of.

But whether coherent or not, it makes no sense to speak of justified or apparently justified belief in a noncognitive statement. The basis for such a belief is mere subjective preference and does not require that the belief be true or even confirmable by others to be valid as an opinion. So with respect to the validity of a noncognitive statement, the distinction between “justified” and “apparently justified” is basically meaningless.